Summing sex

Although the courts have observed, on several occasions, that this formula is understood well enough by the average person in the community, and does not require or permit of any elaboration, 38 it is a regular experience of trial judges that jurors do ask for some explanation of what it involves. In summary then, should there be a retreat from the extent to which judges intrude into the fact-finding function of juries by way of comment or warnings, leaving it to jurors' own common sense and experience? Same-sex couples will now be eligible for the same federal tax treatment and Social Security benefits as opposite-sex couples in the event that one spouse passes away. The extent to which the jury members should receive assistance from the trial judge in relation to this aspect of the trial, which is within their exclusive province, is however open to debate. The increase in the number and complexity of the directions which are now required, as a result of these decisions, has inevitably multiplied the opportunity for first-instance error. Almost inevitably, the consideration of the leave question becomes caught up in the more critical consideration of whether the error, if there was one, is such that the case is suitable for an application of the proviso under s 6 1 of the Criminal Appeal Act. Some of them started off as copies of genes on the X but diverged far from their original function and acquired male-specific roles. While they can provide an exceedingly useful starting point, they tend to suffer from the difficulties that:

Summing sex


A real question arises as to whether, with legislative authority, the lies direction could be substantially shortened and reduced to a bare reminder to the jury members to take into account, as they see fit, any evidence showing that the accused has lied, bearing in mind that there may be reasons other than an acceptance of guilt for having done so. Meanwhile, many federal employees will likely be granted spousal benefits like partner health insurance. The genetic differences between men and women lie in these sex chromosomes. Many obvious differences between humans and chimps, such as hairiness and perhaps even speech, may result from tiny alterations in one or a few genes. Most of these 17 remain dedicated to their original purpose, backed up by their X copy. Introduction This module illustrates how to collapse across variables using retained variables. This is why it is called a running total, because the value of sumwt at each observation is the sum of all the previous observations plus the current observation, NOT the sum of ALL observations in the dataset. He held that the law should be given to the jury not merely with reference to the facts of the particular case but with an explanation of how it applied to the facts of the particular case. Computing a running count and average with implicitly retained variables Implicitly retained variables can also be used to keep a running count. This is what the variable last. The remaining ten genes on the human Y have no copy on the X. Nor can we count all 27 because at least 17 have copies on the X chromosome too. While they can provide an exceedingly useful starting point, they tend to suffer from the difficulties that: Moreover, careful reflection is often required in determining whether some matter that might potentially affect the reliability of a particular piece of evidence is such as to require a warning, or whether it can be left to a comment, or left simply as a matter for the jurors to weigh using their own judgment. Demeanour It has been conventional practice for jurors to be informed that it is appropriate for them to observe the demeanour of witnesses when giving their evidence, and to take it into account as part of the fact-finding process. By and large, they complied with the counsel of Sir Leo Cussen, authoritatively cited in Alford v Magee: Summings-up were short and to the point, and not overburdened by complex analyses of the law, or by commentary on the way in which the jury should approach the evidence. This is achieved using the keep statement followed by the list of variables one wants to keep. Sorting data before collapsing across observations All of the previous sections have worked on the assumption that the data are sorted by famid, which is true of the sample dataset kids defined in section 1. To mention but a few, directions given in circumstantial evidence cases 9 in terms of a 'rational inference or hypothesis consistent with innocence' or one which is 'inconsistent with guilt', and concepts such as 'malice' 10 and 'proximate cause' are likely to be foreign to most jurors. Commonly, where the trial judge goes too far, or offers some comment or argument that was not identified by counsel, this will lead to an unnecessary appeal. The way in which judges should sum up to juries on the concept of proof beyond reasonable doubt has been considered by a Court of Appeal in New Zealand constituted by five justices. Lies Similar questions arise in relation to some of the other directions that regularly arise for consideration on appeal. Although Rule 4 of the Criminal Appeal Rules requires leave to be granted before a ground of appeal will be allowed in relation to any direction, or omission to direct, which was not the subject of an objection at trial, the practice continues unabated of such points being raised on appeal. Cautions The courts have taken a traditional stance based on the common law that judges should give juries assistance by way of a caution in relation to the way that they approach the evidence of witnesses: Same-sex couples will also be exempt from gift tax when transferring assets to each other.

Summing sex


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4 thoughts on “Summing sex

  1. In the example below, the implicitly retained variable is sumwt, where the weight of the current observation wt is added to the last value of sumwt.

  2. It's also unclear whether federal benefits will apply to same-sex couples who marry in a state where same-sex marriage is legal but move to a state where it's not recognized. The jury had not misunderstood the scope or nature of the case against the defendant, they had been directed carefully and the summing up had been clear.

  3. Nor can we count all 27 because at least 17 have copies on the X chromosome too. Mindful of this, the NSWLRC has commissioned the Plain English Foundation to review a sample of summings-up delivered in the Supreme and District Courts which have employed the Bench Book directions, to identify any areas where they are unlikely to have reflected a level of communication that would be appropriate for the usual jury mix.

  4. Many obvious differences between humans and chimps, like hairiness, may result from tiny alterations in one or a few genes.

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