The state soon began to issue marriage licenses for same-sex couples, but these were quickly challenged and their legal status over the long term remained uncertain. Officials in some smaller jurisdictions, notably San Francisco, joined the controversy in early by issuing marriage licenses in defiance of local prohibitions; these licenses were later found to be invalid. For advocates of the community-benefit perspective, all the legal perquisites associated with heterosexual marriage should be available to any committed couple. It should now show similar leadership in recognizing and advancing the rights of same-sex couples. Subsequent challenges to the laws made their implementation contingent on the results of ballot referenda, and in November voters in both states affirmed the laws. Its parliament had passed the measure legalizing gay marriage earlier in Thereafter, South Africa and Argentina were the first African and Latin American countries, respectively, to legalize same-sex marriage. Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church. The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage.
Why is marriage so important? In Canada became the first country outside Europe to pass legislation legalizing same-sex marriage. As an indirect consequence, same-sex marriage was soon legalized by U. Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion. The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents. Support for the law came from both the Flemish-speaking North and the French-speaking South, and the law generated surprisingly little controversy across the country. Such legal circumventions are usually more difficult for, and in some cases even prohibited to, same-sex couples. See also marriage law. If the Supreme Court rules that the provisions of the Family Code are unconstitutional and permits same-sex marriage, or the national legislature enacts a law allowing same-sex marriage, the Philippines will join Taiwan at the forefront of Asian countries with marriage equality. In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples. But the Church of Norway changed course and began sanctioning same-sex weddings in early In early bills allowing for same-sex marriage were passed by legislatures in Maryland and Washington state. Like heterosexual couples, same-sex couples form deep emotional attachments and commitments. Since , the southern Mexican state of Quintana Roo also has allowed gay marriages. In some parts of the world, such as those plagued by war or natural disasters, same-sex marriage is simply not an urgent matter. In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue. The act also restated existing law by providing that no U. The law allows gays and lesbians to marry in both religious and civil ceremonies, but it does not require clergy to officiate at such ceremonies. Its parliament had passed the measure legalizing gay marriage earlier in Those provisions were broadened in to allow any same-sex couple to marry as long as one member of the couple had lived in Belgium for at least three months. United States Eleven years after same-sex marriage was first made legal in Massachusetts, the U. The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved. Psychologists are particularly concerned that such stigma may undermine the healthy development of adolescents and young adults. From this perspective, the movement to legally recognize same-sex marriage is a misguided attempt to deny the social, moral , and biological distinctions that foster the continued existence of society and so should be discouraged. The new law, which was passed in , replaced a law permitting civil unions.
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